Assess and Correct Leg Dominance

What is correct leg dominance?

Correct leg dominance refers to the way you walk or run when balancing on your legs. You are either leaning forward with your body weight on one side of your foot, or you are leaning back with your body weight on one side of your foot. If you lean forward with your body weight on one side of your foot, then you are not using all of your muscles strength. When you do this, it causes imbalance between the two legs.

When you use both legs equally, there is no difference in balance between them. You will have a balanced body without any strain on your joints or muscles. However, if you prefer to lean forward with your body weight on one side of your foot, then you will need to strengthen the muscles that support the weight of your upper body. These muscles include those supporting the neck and shoulders.

If you prefer to lean back with your body weight on one side of your foot, then strengthening these muscles is necessary too. They support the lower part of your body like those supporting the knees and ankles. Training both groups of muscles can mean an overall improvement in your body’s strength.

Why is correct leg dominance important?

Correct leg dominance is important in maintaining a healthy body. It allows you to move around freely without putting too much pressure on any one part of your body. By carrying your body weight evenly over both feet, you protect the muscles and joints that enable you to move around. You need balanced strength in all areas of your legs too. This is because you may need to move in one direction quickly, and it is more difficult if one leg is much stronger or weaker than the other.

How can I improve correct leg dominance?

Maintaining correct leg dominance is important for protecting the muscles and joints in your legs. Correct leg dominance also helps to protect your back and neck because your upper body weight is better supported. Staying balanced when you are moving around helps to protect the core muscles in your abdomen too.

Ways to protect and strengthen your legs

Balancing exercises can help to prevent leg injuries. They improve the strength of the muscles in the back of your legs. They also improve your posture when you are standing or sitting. It is a good idea to do them regularly throughout the day.

You can do them while you are watching TV, riding in a car, or waiting for the bus. Add balancing exercises to your daily activities wherever you can.

How to improve correct leg dominance with balancing exercises

1. One-leg stance – Hold on to a chair at waist height for balance if you need to.

Lift one foot off the floor and stretch it out in front of you as far as you can. Keep the knee straight but not locked. Slowly begin bending the knee until the thigh is roughly parallel to the floor. Hold for 2 seconds and then straighten your leg again.

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Do 10 times and then switch legs and repeat the exercise.

2. Step touches – Stand with your feet together and slowly take a step forward with one foot.

Slowly bring the other foot up to meet it so that you are standing on both feet again. Then quickly step backwards with the same foot and repeat with the other foot. Continue stepping backwards and forwards as quickly as you can while maintaining correct leg dominance.

How can I correct sitting or standing postures?

It is important to correct your sitting and standing postures to protect your muscles, joints, and spine. Most people slouch when they sit, but this is bad for you. It is important to keep the back of your neck long. Your ears should line up with the middle of your shoulders. Keep your shoulder blades pulled back as far as you can reach them. Hold your head high so that your chin is tilted slightly upward. You should feel the stretch from your collar bone to the base of your skull. If you slouch, your chest collapses, which is bad for your lungs and heart. Hold this position as often as you can to practice good posture. It also makes you sit up straight and look taller.

How can I correct my sleeping posture?

Sleeping on your back is best for your spine because it keeps it straight. Sleeping on your stomach or your side can cause a bend in your spine.

What can I do to correct my posture during the day?

There are several simple exercises that you can do at your desk, while you are sitting in the car, or even while you are standing in a line somewhere. It is a good idea to do them every hour or so. These exercises will keep your muscles and joints moving well so that they don’t become stiff. They can even increase your energy level and make you feel better.

Desk Exercises: Hold each of the following positions for a few seconds. Release and then repeat the position. Your muscles need to get used to these new positions so don’t over do it at first. As the pictures show, some of these exercises will seem quite silly but they really do work.

Keep a straight back. Let your shoulders relax. Look up and then look down. Do this several times.

Hold for several seconds Keep your shoulders relaxed and stretch your arms toward the desk in front of you. Stretch one arm out and then the other. Then stretch both arms out to the side. Hold for several seconds and then relax.

Car Exercises: These can be done while sitting in the car, waiting for a traffic light, or at a red light. It is a good idea to do these exercises every 20 minutes of the commute to and from work. They are also good exercises to do while sitting at your desk.

Make sure your head, neck, and back are straight and in good shape before you start. It is a very bad idea to drive or even operate heavy machinery if you are in pain. If you have a back-ache and are doing these exercises then it should get better not worse. If it gets worse you should stop the exercises right away and get medical treatment.

These exercises will help your posture. If you have good posture then you will look and feel taller.

Sit up as straight as you can. Relax your shoulders and let them hang. Let your arms hang at your sides. Straighten your head, neck, and back as much as you can without straining.

Keep this position as long as you can. Take a deep breath and relax. Then do it again.

TIP: Once you have practiced these exercises for a few weeks, you should find that your back does not get as stiff in the morning when you get up. It may even begin to feel normal if you keep up on the exercises daily.

Can I do these exercises at work?

Yes, but only if it will not cause harm or distraction to you or anyone else. The exercises are not a substitute for appropriate break times or lunch periods.

As long as I keep moving at my desk and take breaks every 20 or 30 minutes, will this be considered “light activity” and be okay under the ADA?

Maybe. It would be up to your employer to create and enforce such rules, which can vary from job to job. If you have any concerns, you should discuss this with your employer or a manager at the workplace.

What should I do if my employer says these exercises are not allowed at work?

You could try to work out a compromise with your employer. Perhaps you could do the exercises in a break room or some other place that is not going to cause problems. Or perhaps you could adjust the exercises so that they are less obvious, yet still effective. There are several ways the issue could be resolved.

If I do these exercises during lunch, will I still be allowed to take my full lunch hour?

The law doesn’t address this question specifically. However, the Washington Law Against Discrimination (WLAD) does prohibit employers from punishing employees for exercising their rights under the ADA. This means that your employer cannot dock your pay, demote you, fire you, or any other way of punishing you simply for asking if you can take certain breaks at certain times. Of course, if you are taking extra breaks or leaving early too often this could be grounds for a punishment, but that would apply to everyone in the company, not just people with disabilities.

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My employer provides us with a desk that is adjustable for sitting and standing.

Is that sufficient, instead of needing to get up from my desk?

No. The ADA requires that employers provide “reasonable accommodations”, but an adjustable desk is not considered reasonable. It would be very expensive for most employers to purchase such furniture for all employees. The cost could be unreasonable, just like it would be unreasonable to expect your employer to re-layout the entire office so there are no stairs.

This is not a definitive list of what might be reasonable or not, but rather a start at answering some of the questions that we have received many times. If you have specific questions that are not addressed here, please feel free to ask us!

What if my employer says these changes would be too expensive or would create safety hazards in the workplace?

The ADA only requires employers to provide accommodations that would not cause them “undue hardship.” This is a very high standard and is not met by mere inconvenience, expense, or slight disturbance in the operation of the employer’s business. If an accommodation would be an inconvenience then the employer does not have to provide it. However, if an accommodation would cause a fundamental change in the nature of the business such that it would constitute an “undue hardship” then the employer must provide the accommodation.

What if my employer claims these changes would be an “undue hardship,” but I know this is not true since another business in the area provides the same accommodations to their employees?

It is always best to try and work out accommodations with your employer before seeking legal advice. If you are unable to do so, then in some circumstances it may be necessary to file a formal request with the Washington State Human Rights Commission. However, if you go directly to the HRC before trying to work things out with your employer, it puts them and the Commission in a position of “having” to take action just to prove that they are not discriminating against you. This puts you at a disadvantage in the process. The employer also has the opportunity to correct any misunderstandings before you even approach the HRC, so it is always best to try and work things out directly with them first.

If you believe that your employer is not acting in good faith and still fails to provide the reasonable accommodations after being presented with appropriate medical evidence, then you can file a Request for Investigation (RFI) with the Washington State Human Rights Commission. It is important that you seek legal advice before proceeding. The Washington Law Against Discrimination (WLAD) and the interpreted legal precedents that guide it are very complicated and there are strict time deadlines for filing an RFI, so you would want to get proper legal guidance before proceeding. Washington State Human Rights Commission has attorneys who can give you this guidance if you need it.

I don’t work for a company, I’m self-employed.

Do these still apply to me?

Yes. If you are a self-employed person or the owner of a business, Washington law protects you from discrimination as well. There are slightly different rules that apply to you, so if you feel that you are being discriminated against in violation of Washington law, contact us and we’ll be glad to assist you.

I am a member of the military and I am diagnosed with bipolar disorder and/or symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Are there any laws that protect me?

Yes. Washington law protects members of the military just as it does any other citizen. Employers must make reasonable accommodations to your disability when those accommodations can be made without causing the employer an “undue hardship.”

What is an example of a reasonable accommodation?

An example of a reasonable accommodation is more flexible break times for a maintenance worker who has PTSD and is troubled by loud noises. That relief is granted without any significant costs or impact on the nature of the business.

What is an undue hardship?

An undue hardship would be a significant cost or impact on the nature of the business. The more significant the cost or impact, the more unlikely it is that a court would find that it constitutes an undue hardship.

The nature of most business is to make money. If granting a reasonable accommodation would cause the business to lose money, then that might constitute an undue hardship. However, if there is some other option that would not cause as much cost to the business but would still reasonably accommodate the employee, then the cost of that accommodation would probably not be considered undue.

For example, a national chain restaurant might claim undue hardship if they were required to provide a cashier with flexible break times because it would involve installing new technology in their register system and that would cost several thousands of dollars. However, if the same chain restaurant had several locations in the same area and only one of them had that cashier, it is much less likely that the cost of providing flexible break times for that one employee would constitute an undue hardship.

I’ve heard of the ADA.

Is that different from the Washington Law Against Discrimination?

The Washington Law Against Discrimination and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) provide generally similar protections. There is some overlapping coverage.

However, there are a few important differences. Most importantly, the ADA has a broader reach than Washington law. The ADA protects not only citizens of the United States, but also permanent residents and even some non-permanent legal residents. In addition, it protects not only against discrimination, but also against retaliation for asserting your rights under the ADA or other laws.

The ADA also provides a private right of action allowing you to sue your employer directly for violations of the law. It also has a cap on damages that can be obtained in an ADA lawsuit. State law does not provide a similar right of action or limit damages in the same way.

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I heard about the Civil Rights Act.

Is it different from the Washington Law Against Discrimination and the Americans with Disabilities Act?

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a federal law that addresses a broader range of discriminatory conduct than the ADA or Washington Law Against Discrimination. While all types of discrimination are illegal under the Civil Rights Act, it also protects other characteristics that are not protected under state or federal law, such as gender, pregnancy, and age.

For example, it is illegal to refuse to hire a qualified applicant because she is pregnant. While it is also illegal to refuse to hire a qualified applicant because she is disabled and using a service animal, that type of discrimination is only illegal under the ADA (and Washington Law Against Discrimination). It is not illegal under federal law.

The Civil Rights Act also provides a private right of action. In other words, you can sue your employer directly for violations of the law without having to go through another agency or party first. The ADA does not.

I’m not a U.S. citizen, but I have a green card.

Am I still protected?

Probably not. Immigration status is not specifically identified in either the Washington Law Against Discrimination or the Americans with Disabilities Act. In fact, both laws specifically state that citizenship shall not be considered a protected class. This leaves room for debate as to whether or not your immigration status protects you from employment discrimination under these laws.

However, the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has specifically stated that people with green cards are protected under the ADA. Also, the Washington Law Against Discrimination has a broader definition of “employee” than the ADA.

Both of these factors would lead one to conclude that a person with a valid work visa (such as a green card) would be protected by state law, but not federal law.

What do you mean by “valid work visa”?

Under the Washington Law Against Discrimination, an employee is “any person who provides labor for an employer for hire, with or without compensation.” While there is some argument as to whether or not a work visa holder can be considered an employee, most agree that the definition encompasses interns and volunteers.

Unfortunately, the ADA does not have a definition of “employee” at all. This leaves room for interpretation as to whether or not a volunteer would be considered an “employee” for the purpose of ADA protection. Most agree that a volunteer would not be considered an employee for the purposes of ADA coverage. It is important to note that this conclusion can change based on the policy of your specific employer.

Can my supervisor or manager sexually harass me even if he or she doesn’t work with me?

Definitely. The Washington Law Against Discrimination does not limit the classes of people who can be harassers. The harassment does not even have to happen at work. If the harasser can be classified as a “supervisor, employer, or an agent of the employer”, then the victim can hold that person legally responsible.

For example, if your manager harasses you outside of work and, as a result, you get fired from your job, you can still sue your manager for wrongful termination. This example assumes that your manager is your immediate supervisor (i.e. he or she is directly above you in the chain of command).

If that manager works for a different company, however, you would not be able to sue that person under Washington Law Against Discrimination.

I’m not sure if a person is a supervisor, employer, or agent of the employer.

How can I find out?

The state of Washington has a specific legal definition for all three. Your employer should have this information readily available. If you are unsure, ask your employer to fill you in. You can also contact your local chapter of the National Labor Relations Board for assistance.

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I’ve heard about sexual orientation being protected by anti-discrimination law.

Does this mean I can sue my employer if he or she fires me because I’m gay?

It depends. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 does not protect people from discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. States, however, are allowed to create their own laws in this regard. Washington is one of these states. Under state law, it is illegal to discriminate against someone based on their sexual orientation or gender identity (among other things).

I’m a transgender woman and I was fired from my job after informing my employer that I would be undergoing gender confirmation surgery.

Is this legal?

No. The Washington Law Against Discrimination protects people from discrimination based on their gender identity (among other things). Firing you because you are transgender is, therefore, illegal.

I’m a woman and my manager repeatedly touches me in ways that make me uncomfortable.

Can I do something about this?

Yes. The Washington Law Against Discrimination protects people from harassment based on their gender (among other things). Since you have provided enough information for us to confirm that you are, indeed, a woman, your manager’s actions qualify as unlawful harassment. You can file a complaint with the Washington State Human Rights Commission.

My employer is pressuring me to lie about how I suffered my work injury. They even threatened me.

Can they do that?

Yes, but not if you have a workers’ compensation case. The Washington Law Against Discrimination makes it illegal to coerce or attempt to coerce someone into giving up their rights to workers’ compensation. You can still pursue your claim with the Washington State Industrial Commission.

My employer is pressuring me to lie about how I suffered my work injury, but I’m not sure if I have a workers’ compensation case.

Can you help me figure that out?

Yes. While the Washington Law Against Discrimination does not cover people who don’t have a valid workers’ compensation claim, we can still help you file a complaint with the Washington State Human Rights Commission. There, they will investigate your situation and determine what, if any, actions need to be taken.

I’m a law enforcement officer and my supervisor swore at me and degraded me in front of the rest of the squad.

This is discrimination, right?

While your supervisor’s actions are certainly unprofessional, they do not quite rise to the level of illegal discrimination. Law enforcement agencies have particularly strict rules about how their employees should treat each other. Many of these rules are found in a document called the General Orders. If your employer is actually breaking these rules, then you can report them to the law enforcement’s internal affairs office.

Does Washington have any laws about LGBT discrimination?

Yes and no. While Washington State Law does not prohibit discrimination of any sort based on sexual orientation or gender identity, the city of Seattle has enacted a law protecting its residents from all forms of discrimination. The law covers things like jobs and housing. To find out more about the law, you can contact the Seattle Office for Civil Rights or the ACLU of Washington.

I own a business and a gay couple is trying to reserve my banquet room for their wedding. I don’t want gays in my place.

Can I refuse them service?

No. Businesses in Washington may not discriminate against people based on their sexual orientation or gender identity. You must treat everyone equally. In addition to events like weddings, this law also applies to things like restroom usage and dressing rooms. If a transgender person wants to use a gender-neutral restroom or dressing room that aligns with their gender identity, then you have no right to say no. If, however, there are only gender-segregated restrooms or dressing rooms in your business, then the law allows you to direct transgender people to use only those that match their birth gender.

I’m a hotel owner and a group of transgender women have booked a room at my hotel. They want to stay together.

Is this illegal?

No. The Washington Law Against Discrimination specifically says that a business may not discriminate against someone based on their gender identity or expression. It does not say anything about people being allowed to group together. This means that transgender people are allowed to stay together in the rooms of their choice, even if the hotel has rules prohibiting men and women from sharing a room.

I own a health club and a woman wants to use the men’s restroom. I’ve seen her putting on make up and I know she’s transgender.

Can I stop her?

No. If a business offers multiple-occupancy rooms or dormitories, then it may not deny service to transgender people simply because they have not undergone surgery or done anything else to alter their birth gender. The Washington Law Against Discrimination prohibits businesses from denying people “the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, and accommodations” based on their gender identity or expression. This means that you cannot legally prevent someone from using restroom, dressing room, or any other facility that matches their gender identity or expression. The law also specifically requires that all single-occupancy restrooms be available to everyone regardless of gender. The law specifically says that any transgender person whose gender identity is different than their birth gender must be allowed to use the corresponding facilities.

What if I want to build a new business in Washington? What are my options?

In most cases, you must abide by the same rules as everyone else. This means that your business may not discriminate against people in regard to things like jobs or housing based on factors like their sexual orientation or gender identity. The law contains some exceptions though. This is to prevent any type of physical inspection. If you have a single-occupancy restroom that requires a key for access, you must keep it unlocked at all times.

I’m a landlord and one of my tenants is transgender. They pay their rent on time and take good care of the property.

May I still evict them?

No. Transgender people are specifically protected from housing discrimination by both Federal and Washington State Law. If your business operates in a building that was constructed before 2006, then you may apply for an exemption if complying with the law would cause you undue hardship. The Washington Law Against Discrimination does not explain what constitutes an undue hardship, but other state and federal laws have defined it as “significant difficulty or expense”. Just because your business is old, this doesn’t mean that you automatically qualify for an exception though. This means that you may not deny them housing, evict them, or attempt to exercise any type of discrimination when dealing with them as a tenant. It also means that if someone is defaming a transgender person in your business, you must stop it and may be held legally liable for not doing so.

I have a close friend who is becoming transgender. They come to me for advice and I want to help.

Is there anything wrong with that?

Yes. Courts have ruled that if reasonable measures could have been taken to make a property accessible, without going over the expense or difficulty threshold, then the exception will not apply.

If I have an issue with the person in the next stall at the bathroom, is it OK to confront them as long as I’m nice about it?

No. Even if you’re polite, law enforcement will not separate a complaint into different types of violations. Just because someone is becoming transgender, it doesn’t mean that they suddenly lose all their rights. They still have the right to keep their medical information private and a right to control the disclosure of any information about their transition. They still have the right to use whichever restroom matches their gender identity and not their birth gender.

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I run a restaurant and I’m worried that I’ll get in trouble for serving alcohol to someone who is transitioning from male to female.

Is there anything I should worry about?

If you call the police about a transgender person, they are very likely to be arrested for being there at all.

I’m currently going through a divorce and my wife is trying to take my kids. It would help my case if I could prove that I don’t browse sites that are consider to be pornographic in nature.

Is there any way I can do this?

No. Even if you restrict your search to just transgender related content, records of your attempt to access information would still exist. This could be used against you in family court and is not a risk that you should take.

I’m a parent and I’m worried about my child accessing transgender information while using the computer.

How can I stop this?

You can password protect your computers so that they can only be used after the user has entered a password. Washington State Law prohibits businesses from searching through the personal Internet history of any of their clients in an attempt to verify if they have been looking at anything pornographic in nature.

I’ve recently started dating a new woman and she’s told me that she has an 18 year old daughter. I saw pictures of her online and she’s a very cute young lady. She says that she’s actually a he, but hasn’t had any surgery yet. You can also use software that can limit and control what sites can be viewed and for how long.

These two options will ensure that your child does not access inappropriate material. As an added bonus, you can use these same programs to block access to certain sites that you have specified. If you believe that your child is trying to get around the restrictions you have set, you can set the program to automatically send you an e-mail whenever someone has tried to access a site that you have blocked.

Is this even possible?

I’m a teacher and I’m concerned that some of my students might be accessing transgender related material online.

What can I do?

You can set up filters that will block certain sites with broad categories. For instance you can block sites that discuss LGBT issues, gender identity, etc.

Could I get in trouble?

Yes, it is possible. Just because someone is transgender, it doesn’t mean that they’re not entitled to the same rights as everyone else. However, please understand that no software is 100% effective and even if your child does not try to bypass any restrictions you may have in place, there is always the possibility that someone else may try to access the computer and do something you don’t want them to do. You can also block all pornographic sites from being viewed by your students. If you believe that a specific student has been looking at inappropriate sites, you can set the filter to send you an e-mail whenever that student accesses any site.

I recently started dating a man who I believe is transgender and I’m not sure how to broach the subject with him.

What should I do?

Also, please remember that the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution still applies and any restrictions you do have in place may not be legally binding.

How can I protect my child from seeing transgender related content online?

By using special software, you can block certain sites from being accessed by your children. There are different programs available that offer different levels of restriction. Some allow you to block entire categories, such as pornographic sites or LGBT sites. You can also set the program to only allow access to a list of pre-approved sites. You can make the restrictions quite strict so that even if your child tries to bypass the blocking they will not be able to. There is also the option to set the software to automatically send you an e-mail whenever someone has tried to access a site that you have blocked.

How can I talk to my child about transgender issues?

The best way is to make sure you have an open line of communication with your child. And by open, we mean that you need to make sure that they feel comfortable enough to come to you if they have any questions or concerns. Of course this does not give them free reign to go looking at whatever they want on the internet, but if and when they do come across something that makes them curious you need to be ready to have a discussion about it. Answer their questions honestly and make sure that you explain things in a way that will not cause unnecessary fears or worries.

I recently started dating someone who I believe is transgender, how can I start the conversation?

As with any relationship, communication is key. If the person you are dating is shy or feels awkward around you then it is possible that they will not bring up the topic of being transgender by themselves. This does not mean that they are not ready for a committed relationship with you, they just might not be comfortable talking about their personal issues. So it is your job to start a conversation about this, but you need to do so in a kind and gentle manner.

Here are some tips on how to talk about being transgender in a respectful way:

Do your research first. Knowing some basic information will help you understand the situation better and also let the other person know that you are interested in learning more about them rather than just seeking out random facts to make them feel uncomfortable.

Choose your time and place. Sitting down with someone to have a serious conversation can be a bit nerve wracking, so choosing the right location and time is important. Pick a quiet place where you both can sit down and relax. Try to choose a time when you both are not busy or rushed so that you do not feel stressed during the discussion.

Start with words of support. Let the person know that you are glad they felt comfortable enough around you to tell you about their situation. Reinforce that you would not have asked otherwise and that you are happy that they decided to tell you about themselves. This lets them know that you are supportive and will let them feel more at ease while talking with you.

Do not make it weird or uncomfortable. Making jokes or giggling at inappropriate times is a sure way to make the other person think you are not taking them seriously which is exactly what you want to avoid.

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The predictive validity of a single leg bridge test for hamstring injuries in Australian Rules Football Players by G Freckleton, J Cook, T Pizzari – British journal of sports medicine, 2014 – bjsm.bmj.com

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Shear Wave Elastography Measures of the Achilles Tendon: Influence of Time of Day, Leg Dominance and the Impact of an Acute 30-Minute Bout of Running by C Payne, P Watt, N Webborn – Applied Sciences, 2018 – mdpi.com

Bilateral difference in hamstrings to quadriceps ratio in healthy males and females by PW Kong, SF Burns – Physical Therapy in Sport, 2010 – Elsevier