Biomechanics and Newton’s Laws: Force-Time Curves and Human Movement

The human body is a highly complex system. Each part of it has its own unique characteristics and functions. The human body consists of three main parts: (1) the skeleton; (2) muscles, tendons, bones, organs and other tissues; and (3) blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue. All these components work together to support the whole organism.

The skeletal system comprises of the bones, which are made up of mineralized cartilage cells called osteoclasts. Osteoclasts break down bone into smaller pieces called microdendrites, which are then used by other cells such as osteoblasts to make new bone. The amount of microdendrite produced depends on how much energy is needed to do so. Bone metabolism is controlled by a series of hormones and enzymes.

These hormones and enzymes control the rate at which the body breaks down bone, and they regulate the production of new bone.

Muscles are found throughout your body. They consist of two types: fast-twitch muscle fibers and slow-twitch muscle fibers. Fast-twitch muscles produce maximum force with minimum effort while slow-twitch muscles produce maximum force with little or no effort. Muscle contraction involves contracting one or more muscle groups simultaneously, usually using only a small portion of each group’s total strength.

The muscular system is the most complex part of the human body. The muscular system supports, protects and allows motion to the body. The muscular system can also be divided into two types: voluntary muscles and involuntary muscles. Voluntary muscles are controlled directly by the brain, such as in the abdomen when you contract your stomach or when flexing your arm.

Involuntary muscles are controlled indirectly, such as in your heart beating or your intestines contracting.

The muscular system allows you to move your body by controlling the flow of blood through your veins and arteries. The muscular system also controls everything from walking to breathing. Muscles can even help you maintain balance. The muscular system is actually made up of three different types of muscles in the body: skeletal, smooth and cardiac.

Skeletal muscle makes up the majority of muscles in your body. It helps support the skeleton, allows movement and helps keep your body warm. Skeletal muscles are attached to the skeleton, and when they contract, move your skeleton.

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Smooth muscle controls things like your blood vessels, intestines and uterus. These muscles allow for body processes such as digestion, breathing and reproduction.

The third type of muscle is the cardiac muscle, which is only found in the heart. This is what causes the heart to beat.

Newton’s First Law states that an object will remain at rest or continue to move at a constant speed in a straight line unless acted on by an outside force. As applied to human movement, this means that if you are sitting and not pushing on the ground, then you will continue to sit where you are. If you are walking, running, jumping or doing any other kind of movement, then you are applying a force against the ground causing your body to accelerate.

Newton’s Second Law deals with the relationship between a body’s acceleration and the applied force. This law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that when you apply a force on something, that object will apply an equal force back on you. When you walk or run, the ground is applying an upward force against your feet to prevent you from sinking into it.

This means that when you push on the ground with your feet, your feet are also pushing back against the ground. This interaction between a force and an object is what causes you to accelerate.

Newton’s Third Law deals with the relationship between two objects acting on each other. This law states that whenever one object applies a force on a second object, the second object will apply a force of equal magnitude but opposite direction on the first object. This means that whenever you run or walk, the ground pushes up on your feet to prevent you from sinking into it. Because your feet are not sinking into the ground, they are applying a force back on the ground that pushes you forward.

The Law of Reflection states that anything traveling through the air will reflect off of a flat, hard surface if the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. This means that if you run and slam your feet into the ground, the force of your feet pushing up against the ground will send your body flying upward and forward. As you fly through the air, you can land on your feet and keep running, or if you are on uneven terrain or a hill, you can use the surface to reflect yourself even farther forward.

The Law of Percussion deals with what happens when an object forcefully collides with a surface. When this happens, the momentum of the object does not change, but instead is reflected in the opposite direction. Think of a bullet hitting a wall. The wall is not moving at all, but the bullet keeps going and the only way to get it to stop is to have something stop it for you.

This law can be used to your benefit when you run up against a wall. If you run up to the wall at the right angle, your momentum will reflect off of it and send you flying in the opposite direction.

The Law of Inertia states that an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an outside force. As an object moves, it has a tendency to keep moving. In order to make an object change its speed or direction, you need to apply a force to it. This can be done by pushing or pulling the object, or hitting it with another object.

A good example of this is riding a bike. Your muscles are applying a force to your body to keep you going, but if you come to a sudden stop then the inertia will cause you to keep moving and pass right through the bicycle.

Biomechanics and Newton’s Laws: Force-Time Curves and Human Movement - GymFitWorkout

The Law of Friction states that the friction between any two objects will vary depending upon the surface area of contact, the nature of the surfaces, and the force applied. This law deals with the force that opposes the motion between two surfaces that are in contact with each other. The more surface area there is in contact, the greater the opposing force will be. An example of this would be trying to push a large box across a floor.

At first it is easy, but as more and more of the box touches the floor, it becomes harder and harder to get it to move.

By combining these physical laws of motion you can achieve anything without spending a vital organ or even breaking a sweat!

You fall several times as you try to learn to coordinate your runs, leaps and bounces, but soon you get the hang of it and can gracefully bound up and down the streets like a superhuman ping pong ball. As you move faster and faster you begin to take takes some shortcuts by vaulting over standing vehicles instead of going around them and soon you find yourself at City Hall.

“This is as far as I go.” The radio announcer says as you turn the dial. “I hope you learned a lot today and please be careful out there!”

You smile at this as you run into City Hall and make your way up to the mayor’s office. When you burst in demanding that he hand over the city’s supply of food, he seems less than impressed.

“I was hoping you’d get here sooner,” he says in a bored tone, glancing up from his desk.

Sources & references used in this article:

Neuromechanics of human movement by RM Enoka – 2008 – books.google.com

An improved method to determine neuromuscular properties using force laws–From single muscle to applications in human movements by T Siebert, M Sust, S Thaller, M Tilp, H Wagner – Human movement science, 2007 – Elsevier

A biomechanical evaluation of resistance by DM Frost, J Cronin, RU Newton – Sports Medicine, 2010 – Springer