Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy

Stride Angle Stepper Motor: What Is It?

The stride angle stepper motor is a device which allows the user to adjust the position of their feet while running. These devices are commonly used by runners and triathletes who want to improve their efficiency during long distance runs or races. They allow them to run at different speeds with varying ground contact times, thus improving performance. Stance angle steppers are often referred to as “stepping stones” because they allow the runner to change their speed while maintaining the same ground contact time.

A common misconception is that these devices are only useful for those who do not have good flexibility or strength in their legs. However, many runners use them to increase their efficiency when running on uneven surfaces such as trails or roads. Many athletes use them to train for marathons and other endurance events where there is a high risk of injury.

How Does It Work?

The stride angle stepper motor works by allowing the user to vary their stride angle. For example, if you were to step forward slightly on one side of your body, then back slightly on the other side of your body, you would end up stepping with a slight bend in each leg. By walking like this, you will increase your step length while lowering your vertical oscillation. This means that you will cover more ground while expending less energy. The product can also be used to step over small objects while running, so you can spend less time picking your feet up and putting them back down.

While using the device, it is recommended that you keep your normal stride length. The product is designed to make your running form more efficient by lowering your vertical oscillation and increasing your step length. If you increase your stride length using the device, then you will actually be expending more energy than you would if you did not use it at all.

Stride Angle Stepper Motors are used by many professional runners and triathletes because of their ability to train for different terrains without having to run them. While running with the device, you should feel as if you have more energy, because your muscles aren’t working as hard.

Exercises To Improve Running Economy

There are a few exercises that you can do to improve your running economy. These exercises will help improve the strength of your leg muscles, as well as your lung capacity. While doing these exercises, it is important to maintain good form because if you do not, you will not get the most out of them and you could get injured.

1. Leg Swings

One of the best exercises that you can do to improve your leg strength and running economy is to do leg swings. This exercise is a great way to warm up before a run, and also helps to loosen your legs after a run. To do this exercise, simply stand with your feet together and swing your legs back and forth as if you are running in place.

Swing your legs forward and backward at a moderate pace for thirty seconds. After thirty seconds, increase the speed of your swings for another thirty seconds. Finish the exercise by swinging your legs as fast as you can for another thirty seconds.

2. Squats

Squats are a great exercise to do if you want to improve the strength of your leg muscles. Stronger muscles will help you run longer distances more efficiently by using less energy. This exercise is also great for your overall health.

To do this exercise, stand with your feet shoulder width apart and your back straight. Slowly bend your knees and lower your bottom towards the ground. If you can, try to touch the ground with your fingertips. Make sure that you keep your head up and do not arch your back. After touching the ground, push yourself back up to the starting position in a quick motion.

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - GymFitWorkout

3. Step Ups

This exercise is very similar to the squat, except you do it with one leg at a time. This exercise helps strengthen your quads, which play an important role in running. To do this exercise, find something that is about knee height.

You can use something that is pre-existing, such as a bench or log, or you can place something like a box or books on top of a stack of books. Stand in front of the box with your right foot and place your left foot on top of the box. Slowly bend your right knee and lower your body towards the ground. When you reach a point where your right leg is just about to touch the ground, push yourself back up to the starting position in a quick motion. After you do this with your right leg, do it again with your left leg.

4. Leg Raises

This exercise is very simple, yet very effective. Just like it sounds, it is a great way to work your abdominal muscles as well as the muscles in your legs. You can do this exercise either sitting or standing, but the instructions will be from the sitting position.

Begin by sitting on the ground with your legs out in front of you. Slowly lift your knees up to your chest one at a time. Try to get your knees up as high as you can. Hold the top position for a second and then slowly lower your knees back towards the ground. Be sure that you do not arch your back or let your knees go over your toes.

5. Calf Raises

This exercise is another great one for working on the muscles in your legs. Through the science of neuro-muscular facilitation, this exercise will increase the number of muscle fibers in your calves, which will help you run longer distances with less effort. Begin by standing about two feet from a wall.

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - Picture

Place your toes on the wall with your heels pushing off of the ground. Your feet should be just past perpendicular to the wall and should be at a 90 degree angle. Push off of the wall and raise up on your tip toes. When you can no longer push any higher, hold that position for a second, and then lower yourself back towards the ground.

6. Rope Jumps

This is a great exercise for improving lower body strength and endurance. To do this exercise place a rope on the ground and tie the ends together so it forms a circle. The rope should be just off the ground, approximately ankle height.

Make sure there is enough room for you to stand inside of it with your legs slightly more than shoulder width apart. Place your hands at your side and quickly jump through the circle so that your feet land inside of it. Then jump back outside of the circle, before your feet land back on the ground. Try to keep your knees as straight as possible when you are in the air.

7. In & Out

This exercise is great for working your upper body and cardio-vascular system at the same time. To do this exercise, start by getting into a position similar to the one you would be in if you were going to do a pushup. Then move forward and push yourself back to a seated position.

As you are pushing forward with your arms, kick your legs backwards. Then as you are sitting down, bring your legs back in towards your chest. When you bring your legs back in, land on your knees rather than your feet so you do not injure your knees. Next, push yourself back out into the original position to repeat the cycle again.

8. Quick Feet

This is a great exercise for working the muscles in your legs and getting your feet used to moving quickly. Begin by standing with your legs about shoulder width apart. Then lift your left foot a few inches off of the ground and pull your toes back so that you are bending them back.

Next, quickly move your foot forward until it is just past your right foot and then bring it back again to the starting position. Next do the same thing with your right foot. Continue to do this as quickly as you can for the entire exercise.

9. Jumping Jacks

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - GymFitWorkout

This common exercise is a great way to get your blood pumping and to improve your cardio-vascular system. Begin by standing straight with your legs about shoulder width apart. Your hands should be at your side.

Then lift your arms up and spread them to the side, high above your head. Then bring them back down to your side once again. The entire process should look like you are pretending to be an airplane. Continue this for the entire exercise.

10. Pushups

This is another great exercise for working out your upper body and increasing strength and endurance in your muscles. Begin by getting into a position with your hands on the floor just beyond shoulder width apart. Your body should be straight from your heels to your head.

Then slowly lower yourself down by bending your arms until they are just past straight. Then push yourself back up to the starting position. Repeat this for the entire exercise.

If you are new to exercise, I would recommend that you do only five repetitions of each exercise during your first week. If that goes well, the second week you should do ten repetitions of each exercise. Continue to increase the amount of repetitions by five each week until you are doing fifty repetitions of each exercise.

Just remember that it is better to start out slowly and work your way up. Build up endurance in your muscles and improve your stamina slowly so that you don’t get discouraged or injured. Be patient with yourself and give your body time to get used to the exercises.

Table of Contents

Your Free Gift!

Chapter 1: Introduction

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - | Gym Fit Workout

Chapter 2: Motivation

Chapter 3: Getting Started

Chapter 4: What is the Paleo Diet?

Chapter 5: Breakfast Recipes

Paleo Pancakes

Banana Pancakes

Cavewoman’s Porridge

Piña Colada Breakfast Porridge

Strawberry Coconut Muffins

Almond and Raspberry Muffins

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - GymFitWorkout

Breakfast Cookies

Cranberry Orange Bread

Honey Loaf

Hazelnut Bread Loaf with Butter Pecan Spread

Coconut and Chocolate Fudge Pops

Strawberry and Banana Ice Lollies

Chocolate Coconut Ice Lollies

Coconut and Vanilla Ice Lollies

Strawberry and Banana Milkshake

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - GYM FIT WORKOUT

Blueberry and banana Milkshake

Strawberry Milkshake

Chocolate Milkshake

Mocha Milkshake

Piña Colada Milkshake

Peanut Butter and Banana Milkshake

Coconut, Vanilla and Chocolate Milkshake

Chocolate Orange Milkshake

Coffee Milkshake

Vanilla Milkshake

Orange and Banana Smoothie

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - GYM FIT WORKOUT

Strawberry and Passion Fruit Smoothie

Pineapple, Banana and Cinnamon Smoothie

Raspberry and Coconut Smoothie

Blackcurrant and Apple Smoothie

Breakfast Barley with Rice and Fruit

Breakfast Oatmeal with Fruit and Coconut Cream

Breakfast Quinoa with Apples, Dates and Pecans

Chia Seed Pudding with Nuts and Coconut Cream

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - Picture

Papaya and Berry Breakfast Bowl

Coconut, Apricot and Banana Dessert

Figs, Apple and Cherries Breakfast Bowl

Banana, Fresh Fig and Honey Combinations

Lime, Mango and Passionfruit Yogurt Bowl

Blueberries, Apple and Cinnamon Oatmeal

Strawberries and Raspberries Breakfast Parfait

Coconut, Cinnamon and Blueberry Sweet

Grapes, Pomegranate and Mint Dessert

Pomegranate, Strawberry and Lemon Zest Parfait

Grapes, Coconut and Cinnamon Muesli

Goji Berries, Almonds and Dates Muesli

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - GymFitWorkout

Mango, Lemon and Cashew Muesli

Pineapple, Cinnamon and Macadamia Muesli

Cranberries, Apple and Pistachios Muesli

Peaches, Vanilla Yogurt and Walnuts Breakfast

Cantaloupe, Honeydew and Mint Breakfast

Breakfast Raita

Carrot, Apple and Pear Breakfast

Cucumber, Apple and Mint Juice

Strawberry, Beetroot and Apple Juice Blend

Green Protein Power Smoothie

Banana, Blueberry and Almond Smoothie

Strawberry, Banana and Honey Power Smoothie

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - gym fit workout

Blueberry, Mango and Coconut Smoothie

Breakfast Quinoa with Fruit Compote

Mushroom Omelette with Sautéed Tomatoes

Spinach, Mushroom and Feta Cheese Omelette

Classic Omelette with Ham and Peppers

Asparagus and Gruyère Omelette

Poached Eggs with Roasted Tomatoes and Avocado Dip

Eggs Benedict Style

Open Omelette with Smoked Salmon and Capers

Spanish Omelette with Peppers and Onions

Omelette with Mozzarella, Sun-Dried Tomatoes and Olives

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - | Gym Fit Workout

Tofu and Vegetable Stir-Fry

Stir-Fried Tofu with Vegetables and Ginger in Lettuce Cups

Ginger and Sesame Stir-Fried Tofu

Miso Soup with Lotus Root and Spinach

Minestrone Soup

Beef, Beet and Carrot Stew

Lentil and Vegetable Soup

Chicken and Sweet Potato Stew

Cabbage, Squash and Beef Soup

Spicy Chicken, Mango and Avocado Soup

Thai Coconut Chicken Soup

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - GYM FIT WORKOUT

Easy Fish Stew with Cod, Potatoes and Tomatoes

Fish Fillet Sandwich with Tartar Sauce, Lettuce and Tomato

Salmon Burger with Dill Mayonnaise, Lemon and Caper Salad

Salmon Teriyaki with Basted Eggplant, Green Beans and Zen Brown Rice

Rose Harissa with Halibut, Lemon and Capers

Spaghetti with Prawns, Scallops and Calamari in Garlic and Parsley Sauce

Crabmeat Salad with Champagne Grapes on Manchego Cheese with Baby Arugula

Seared Tuna with Leeks and Wild Rice

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - Image

Tuna Steak with Mediterranean Vegetables and Pesto

Tuna with Cucumber, Sesame and Wasabi Mayo on Black Pepper Bread

Tuna Steak Sandwich with Pickled Onion, Red Pepper and Tarragon Mayonnaise

Salmon Fillet with Savoy Cabbage, Toasted Almonds and Honey Lemon Dressing

Poached Salmon with Green Pea, Lettuce and Herb Salad, Hard-Boiled Egg and Dijon Dill Mustard

Salmon Fillet with Avocado, Tomato and Fennel Salad and Dill Mayonnaise

Salmon Fillet with Sweet Potato Mash, Baked Squash and Herby Spinach

Salmon Fillet with Sweet Pepper, Tomato and Spinach Tacos

Seared Tuna Steak with Warm Asian Slaw

Baked Salmon with Spicy Ratatouille

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - GymFitWorkout

Poached Pears in Red Wine with Mussels, Scallops and Bacon

Grilled Tuna with Black Bean, Tomato and Orange Salad

Grilled Tuna Steak with Beet, Apple and Fennel Slaw

Pan-fried Scallops with Lemon Pepper Spinach

Steamed Mussels with Pancetta, Cabbage and Carrot Puree

Steamed Mussels with Chorizo, Savoy Cabbage and White Wine

Prawn, Mushroom and Tomato Curry with Basmati Rice

Grilled Piri-Piri Chicken with Paprika Sweet Potatoes

Stir-Fried Chicken with Cashews and Green Beans

Grilled Chicken with Pineapple, Red Onion and Sweet Pepper Salad

Spicy Chicken Stir-Fry with Cabbage and Carrots

Piri-Piri Chicken Skewers with Grilled Pepper and Onion Salad

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - gym fit workout

Chicken Schnitzel with Fennel, Orange and Olive Salad

Crispy Chicken Wings with Hot Honey, Blue Cheese Dressing and Celery

Ginger and Sesame Stir-Fried Chicken with Rice Noodles

Thai Red Pork Curry with Edamame, Baby Carrots and Eggplant

Pork Ribs with Fennel, Chestnuts and Pear Slaw

Muffin Pan Paprika Sausages with Butter Beans, Baby Carrots and Cauliflower

Lamb Fillet Burger in a Beet Shell with Lemon Yogurt and Caper Mayonnaise

Spicy Lamb Kefta Patties with Chuky Sprout, Cucumber and Yogurt Salad

Biryani Chicken Burger in a Chickpea Bun with Red Onion and Cilantro Salad

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - GYM FIT WORKOUT

Chicken Vindaloo with Fresh Herb Roti

Lamb Vindaloo with Sticky Coconut Rice

Pork Vindaloo with Chickpea Pilav

Cashew Nut Chicken Curry with Lemon Rice

Sweet Potato, Tofu and Spinach Curry with Apples and Cashews

Spicy Tofu, Eggplant and Green Bean Curry with Thai Eggplant Relish

Creamy Chicken and Leek Curry with Mi-Cuit Tomatoes and Soft Polenta

Spiced Turkey Meatball and Pesto Bagel Sandwich with Sun-Dried Tomato and Olive Tapenade

Oriental Barbecued Pork with Cucumber Salad

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - gym fit workout

Grilled Steak with Roasted Pepper, Goat Cheese and Basil Sandwiches

Steak with Wasabi Mayonnaise, Shrimp and Apple Slaw Sandwich

Steak Sandwich with Onion, Lemon and Peppercorn Butter

Steak Sandwich with Pickled Onion, Fresh Horseradish and Mayonnaise

Steak with Red Pepper, Herb and Lemon Creme Fraiche Sandwiches

Beef Brochette with Herby Couscous Salad

Meatball Marinara with Penne Pasta and Mozzarella

Lamb Kofta Meatball with Tomato and Olive Couscous

Meatball Sub with Spicy Pepper and Olive Relish

Tortilla Española with Grilled Jumbo Prawns and Seared Tuna

Grilled Chicken Goujons with Spicy Rémoulade and Paprika Fries

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - GymFitWorkout

Seared Tuna and Spicy Potato Shake with Sweet Peppers and Tomato Vinaigrette

Grilled Lamb Chops with Eggplant, Harissa and Pomegranate Salad

Paprika New York Steak with Hot Pepper Corn and Blue Cheese Baked Potato

Spicy Lamb and Huck-Leek Peppers with Cumin Basmati Rice

Barbecued Spiced Short Ribs with Roasted Potatoes and Corn Bread


This is a lovely autumnal dish, perfect for those colder months. The sweet potato mash and herby spinach give it a warming quality, while the baked squash adds a little sweetness.

Serves 4

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - GymFitWorkout

4 x 150 g (5 oz) salmon fillets, skin on

4 small red kent pumpkin (squash)

4 teaspoons olive oil

2 teaspoons runny honey

1 lemon

175 g (6 oz) young spinach leaves, thick stalks discarded and reserved for another use

1 small bunch of flat leaf parsley, leaves picked and very finely chopped

1 small bunch of mint, leaves picked and very finely chopped

100 g (3½ oz/⅓ cup) mixed seeds

sea salt and freshly ground black pepper

Roasted Sweet Potato Mash

800 g (1 lb 12 oz) orange sweet potatoes, unpeeled but well washed

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - Picture

2 garlic cloves, halved

2 tablespoons olive oil

Preheat the oven to 200°C (400°F).

Put the sweet potatoes on a baking tray, pierce all over with a fork and stud with the garlic. Roast for about 1 hour, or until a knife tip easily pierces right through a potato. Set aside to cool slightly, then peel off the skins and put in a bowl.

Whisk together the oil and honey and drizzle over the warm flesh, then add the zest of half the lemon and season well with salt and pepper. Using a potato masher, mash until fairly smooth – you want it to be creamy rather than overly smooth. Cover with clingfilm (plastic wrap) and keep warm.

Preheat the grill (broiler) to high.

Brush the outside of the salmon fillets with a little oil and season well with salt and pepper. Grill (broil) skin-side up for 4 minutes, then turn over and grill for another 2 minutes. The flesh should be still nice and pinky red when cut into thickly.

Meanwhile, bring a large pan of water to the boil, add a good pinch of salt and the spinach and blanch for 30 seconds. Drain in a colander, then refresh under cold water. Drain again, then gently press out any excess water – you just want it pliable but not wet.

Put in a bowl with half the chopped herbs and sea salt and pepper. Toss to combine, then set aside.

Spoon the sweet potato mash onto serving plates and spread out into a low mound. Arrange the spinach on top of each mound and sprinkle with the seeds. Lay a salmon fillet on top of each mound, then finish with a little extra zest of lemon.

Serve immediately.


Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - gym fit workout

For a change, try filleting the salmon, removing the skin, and making thick slices. Roast the garlic and sweet potatoes as above, then whip the potato flesh with a hand blender, adding the oil and honey. Stir in the roasted garlic and pile into bowls.

Arrange the fish on top, spoon over some of the garlic oil, then finish as above.


Everyone loves a good fish pie. While you can buy good ready-made puff pastry from the freezer section of your local supermarket, making your own is really very easy and it tastes 100 times better. The butter needs to be really cold so it is a good idea to make this the day before you want to serve it, as the pastry needs to be kept very cold.


1 quantity Puff Pastry (see left)

800 g (1 lb 12 oz) waxy potatoes, peeled and cut into 2 cm (¾ in) cubes

100 g (3½ oz) unsalted butter

12 garlic cloves, unpeeled

Effects of Stride Angle on Running Economy - GYM FIT WORKOUT

6 thyme sprigs

4 bay leaves

fine sea salt and freshly ground black pepper; to serve: 1 bunch of curly kale, stems removed, leaves shredded, tossed in a little olive oil and roasted until golden

Make the Puff Pastry according to the recipe and wrap it in plastic wrap, then keep it in the refrigerator overnight to rest.

The next day, to make the filling, put the potatoes in a large saucepan and cover with cold water. Bring to the boil over high heat, then reduce the heat to low and simmer for 10 minutes or until just tender. Drain well and set aside.

Melt the butter in a medium frying pan over medium heat. When it starts to foam, add the garlic, thyme and bay leaves and cook for 2 minutes or until the garlic is golden and beginning to crisp at the edges.

Add the potatoes and cook, tossing occasionally, for 5 minutes or until the butter has reduced and thickened and coats the potatoes. Add salt and pepper to taste. Stir through the kale and set aside to cool.

Sources & references used in this article:

Interaction effects of stride angle and strike pattern on running economy by J Santos-Concejero, N Tam, C Granados… – … journal of sports …, 2014 – researchgate.net

Stride angle as a novel indicator of running economy in well-trained runners by J Santos-Concejero, N Tam… – The Journal of …, 2014 – cdn.journals.lww.com

Biomechanics and running economy by T Anderson – Sports medicine, 1996 – Springer