Fat Bones: The Lesser Known Side Effect of Obesity
The less known side effect of obesity is the loss of bone mass. Bone mass is essential for human survival.
Without adequate bone mass, humans cannot perform physical activities such as walking or running, which are necessary for daily life. If not enough bone mass is present, then the body will begin to break down muscle tissue instead and eventually lead to death due to lack of oxygen supply.
Bone mass is lost through several ways. One way is the direct loss of bone from the skeleton itself.
Another way is when cells die due to lack of nutrients. A third way is when the body’s own immune system attacks and destroys healthy bone tissue.
In the United States, approximately one out of every three adults is obese. These individuals have higher rates of osteoporosis than those with normal weight.
Osteoporosis causes fractures and other problems later in life. According to the American Cancer Society, “Obesity increases your risk for many kinds of cancer.”
Osteoporosis affects men and women equally; however, it does affect older people more severely than younger ones. This is because later in life, the body naturally begins to lose bone mass.
Obese people lose this bone mass at a much faster rate than others.
There are several factors that affect bone mass. Three of the most important ones are diet, exercise, and genetics.
Someone who eats a nutritious diet with proper amounts of calcium and other minerals will be more likely to have stronger bones than someone who does not. A person who exercises regularly will also have better bone mass than one who exercises less. Genetics also play a role in how a person develops bone mass.
Some people are more susceptible to the effects of osteoporosis than others. Osteoporosis is more likely to affect women than men, especially after menopause.
It can affect anyone of any age, however.
As a person ages, it is natural to lose bone mass. Osteoporosis is different in that bone mass is lost at a much higher rate.
A great deal of physical activity can help slow down this process.
There are several symptoms that suggest a person might have osteoporosis. These include back pain, especially after minor impacts such as coughing or sneezing; broken bones after minor impacts; and spinal deformities such as a hunched back.
Treatment for osteoporosis includes lifestyle changes in diet and exercise. Medication is also available for those who have broken bones.
Hormone therapy can also help increase bone mass; however, this treatment is not a long-term solution.
The most important thing to remember is to prevent osteoporosis from occurring in the first place. Maintaining a healthy diet and exercising on a regular basis are essential.
As you can see, obesity does more than just give you a larger body size. There are several unseen factors that can affect your life.
1. What is one side effect of obesity?
a. It can cause heart disease.
b. It can lead to cancer.
c. It can cause back pain.
2. Which of the following is
NOT a reason that osteoporosis occurs?
a. Lack of exercise
b. Lower-than-normal calcium intake
c. Lack of vitamins and minerals
d. All of the above
3. Obesity is more likely to affect:
a. Men than women.
b. Children than adults.
c. Women than men.
d. It is not limited by age or gender.
4. Which of the following, when broken, would be considered a sign of osteoporosis?
a. A toe
b. A wrist
c. A rib
d. A hip
5. Which of these would be the
MOST effective way to prevent osteoporosis?
a. Eat a well-balanced diet.
b. Get regular exercise.
c. See a doctor on a regular basis.
d. Try not to become obese.
6. What is the best title for this passage?
a. Obesity and Osteoporosis
b. Diet and Exercise
c. Osteoporosis and Obesity
d. Diet and Weight
Time: 18 Minutes
Passage: “When I Grow Up”
Most of us take our chosen career paths based on what we enjoy. It is natural for a child to think that he or she will do the same thing when they grow up.
The reality is that while most kids dream of being a firefighter, doctor, or astronaut, not everyone has the aptitude, desire, or circumstances to achieve this goal.
Tests and quizzes are not uncommon in schools. These tools are used to measure a student’s knowledge on various topics.
One major problem with traditional tests and quizzes is that the questions are often outdated and do not accurately reflect what is currently being taught in school. A newer type of test has been designed to solve this problem. It is known as the performance-based assessment, or PBA. This type of assessment is given less frequently than traditional tests and quizzes but are designed to measure a student’s ability to apply academic concepts rather than simple knowledge recall.
The purpose of this passage is to explain performance-based assessment.
1. Performance-based assessment, or
PBA, is an example of what type of test?
b. Multiple choice
2. Performance-based assessment is often given less frequently than traditional _________.
3. which of the following is a reason that traditional tests and quizzes are used less frequently in schools?
a. They do not accurately measure what they are intended to measure.
b. They take more time and money to grade.
c. They are outdated by the time they are given.
d. They do not accurately measure a student’s ability to apply academic concepts.
4. Which of the following would be the
BEST title for this passage?
a. Performance-based assessment: A Better Way To Measure Knowledge
b. Why Traditional Tests And Quizzes Don’t Measure What You Think
c. The Future of Assessment
d. A New Way to Grade
Time: 20 Minutes
Passage: “Music is my Passion”
When people think about hobbies, music is probably second only to sports as the most popular. Most people listen to music and many play instruments or participate in singing.
However, not all music is created equal. There are many different types and a person’s tastes are often shaped by their environment and experiences. This passage will focus on one particular type of music that has recently become very popular among youth in the United States. It is known as K-pop.
The term K-pop stands for Korean pop. This is a form of music that comes from Korea, a nation located on the Korean Peninsula in Northeast Asia.
Many Americans are unfamiliar with K-pop despite its rising popularity. K-pop is growing in popularity and has a fairly large following here in the U.S. The headquarters of many major K-pop companies are located in Seoul, South Korea.
The music is often electronic or hip hop-based and includes a mixture of singing and rapping. Some people say that K-pop sounds similar to J-pop, which comes from Japan, but this is a common misconception.
The two types of music have some similarities but also have some important differences. For one thing, K-pop bands often have many more members than J-pop bands.
K-pop is promoted through music videos, which are often shown on television and the Internet. Many K-pop singers are also models for clothing lines and other types of products and services.
Fans often imitate the styles of their favorite K-pop singers. There are dozens of popular K-pop groups and solo singers in South Korea and around the world.
a. Summarize the argument above with a balanced argument of your own.
Do you find the evidence above compelling?
Give a specific explanation as to why.
Which choice provides the best guideline for how to keep your room clean?
1. Clean it regularly and thoroughly every week.
2. Make your bed every morning and keep everything off of the floor.
3. Clean your room when it gets completely out of hand.
Time: 40 Minutes
Passage: Some people think that reading is a boring pastime and others consider it a necessary chore. In reality, there are many different types of reading material and everyone has something they would enjoy reading.
This passage will focus on two of the most popular types of popular literature in America today, Romance Novels and Superhero Comics. Both of these types of stories are very popular among American readers.
The term “romance novel” refers to a story about the development of a relationship between two people, especially those that are full of suspense and emotional depth. Most stories include a description of the physical attraction between the two main characters.
The romance element is usually obvious in the title and cover design, which usually involves a couple close together or even kissing. Most novels also involve an aspect of mystery which adds to the entertainment value.
The first romance novel is generally considered to be “Deverish Farm” which was written by Charlotte Turner Smith in 1771. The novel is about an innocent young woman who has a relationship with a man who has been believed dead.
In the early days of the romance novel, the main character was often a woman of high social class who meets and falls in love with a man of lower social class.
The term “superhero comic” refers to a type of adventure story that details the exploits of an extraordinary person with super abilities and amazing powers. The stories are set in current times, with the characters having fantastic abilities and skills such as flying, super-strength and shapeshifting.
Most superheroes wear a costume with a secret identity and each has a personal philosophy about justice, order, and rule defiance.
This term was first used in 1938, before the Golden Age of comics. The first superhero is considered to be “The Clock”, who first appeared in a comic book cover dated February 18th, 1940.
The Clock possessed abilities that would now be considered quite tame, including super strength and the ability to fly. However, due to the creative freedom allowed by the original concept of superheroes still being developed at that time, he soon became much faster than any other character known at that time.
Time: 40 Minutes
Passage: In today’s world, many people spend an extraordinary amount of their time on the computer. Some people may argue that the internet is like the air we breathe.
We all use it every day and can’t imagine life without it. For other people, computers and the internet are boring, worthless inventions that sink children’s minds and don’t have any purpose in society. This passage discusses both sides of this argument.
The rise of the computer age has had a dramatic impact on society. Computers and the internet have changed the way people communicate and do business.
They’ve changed the way people learn and the way teachers teach. And while these changes are constant, they are certainly not finished. The computer age will continue to grow and change. It is this area of growth that has both positive and negative effects on society.
The internet is a force of habit that has formed the basis of modern life. People now rely on the internet and computers for most of their communication, from cell phones to e-mail to social media.
The internet is also increasingly becoming a major source of entertainment, from movies and television to online games. The computer age has made information readily available, contributing to research and learning. It has made doing business faster and easier. Computers are used in almost every field.
However, there are also negative aspects of the computer age. While computers can communicate in an instant, face to face human interaction has suffered.
Many people now prefer to communicate with friends online rather than meeting them in person. The computer can never completely replace human interaction. The internet has become a major source of distraction for students and workers. Too much time on the computer can lead to less productivity and a degradation of skills for some. It can also be a major source of addiction for others.
It is clear that computers have both positive and negative effects on society. It is up to each individual to decide how these effects will affect them.
The good and bad of the computer age are here to stay.
Time: 30 Minutes
Passage: Since the beginning of time, humans have wondered about their existence.
Who are we? Where did we come from? Why are we here?
These are questions that have been pondered by some of history’s greatest minds. Through the years, many theories have been developed in an attempt to explain life’s mysteries. This passage discusses two of the most popular.
The first theory is known as the theory of evolution. It is believed that all life on earth evolved from a single cell organism through a process of natural selection.
In the beginning, the earth was just a mass of gases. Over time, these gases condensed and eventually became our earth. Once the earth was formed, a single cell formed from its watery mixture. This cell was the birth of life. As time went on, this cell split and multiplied eventually becoming all life on earth.
The second theory is the idea that a superior being created the world and all life on it. This is what is known as creationism or “the big bang.” According to this theory, a being created the earth and all life on it.
This being can take any form, from a traditional god to an advanced alien life form. However, not all religions agree with this theory. In fact, many religions split from each other due to disagreements in this very theory.
It is easy to accept one of these theories over the other. The problem is, neither of them can be proven.
Yes, there are events that support both theories, but neither theory can ever be proven to the full extent. Both theories can be broken down even further into several sub-theories, but that is a discussion for another day.
So, which theory do you believe in? Which theories have your supported?
You may discuss the theories here.
Time: 20 Minutes
Passage: In every day life, people tend to follow certain routines and patterns. Some people like to eat the same foods for breakfast while others go to a specific coffee shop each morning.
These patterns begin as habits and become routine. Routines make life easier by requiring less thinking each day. Ultimately, routines and patterns keep the world running smoothly.
The same is true for characters in stories. Each person has their own routine or pattern.
Some examples are going to work each day, walking the dog, or watering the plants. As with real life, routines make life easier by requiring less thinking each day. If a character’s routine is interrupted, it can cause conflict for that character. In fact, an interrupted routine is a common formula for creating conflict.
So, which is more important to you? Writing an interesting character or creating conflict for that character?
You may discuss the importance of routines and patterns to a story here.
Time: 40 Minutes
Passage: Time is something that everyone senses, but cannot see. It is constantly moving and flowing at an fast rate.
Except for when it is not. Sometimes time stands still. Sometimes it flies. There have been many theories on the nature of time, but there are two main ones: The steady-state and big bang models.
The steady-state model describes a universe that has no beginning or end. Instead, the universe is ever expanding but maintains a constant condition.
This means that the universe has always existed and will always exist, like an eternal stalemate.
The big bang model, on the other hand, states that time did have a beginning. In fact, it states that there was a “birth” to the universe.
Before this event occurred, time did not exist. For lack of a better word, this event was called the “Big Bang.”
So, which model do you believe in?
You may discuss the importance of time to a story here.
Time: 60 Minutes
Passage: Dreams are an interesting part of life. They can be fun, scary, silly, or even sexual.
Dreams are also different for everyone, since everyone incorporates their desires into their dreams.
But what are dreams exactly? Are they simply the byproduct of mind slowly deteriorating as you sleep, or are they more than that?
The most common belief is that dreams are the byproduct of the mind. During the day, your brain takes in a lot of information. This information is then processed to keep yourself alive and aware. During sleep, your brain takes time to process all of this information. The dream is the process of your brain slowly trying to make sense of everything you experienced that day. This then results in a dream.
Another theory states that dreams are messages from a greater power. This power can be anything: God, fate, or even the universe.
This theory states that during sleep, your brain slows to the point where you experience “divine inspiration.” This means that the process of dreaming is actually your brain slowing down to a crawl so that your mind can connect with a higher being to receive a message.
So how do you feel about dreams?
You may discuss dreams and their role in stories here.
Time: 60 Minutes
Passage: Memories are a tricky thing. For some, memories can be ugly and painful.
For others, memories can be beautiful moments that one wants to cherish forever. Some memories are ones that one wants to forget, while others are too painful to forget.
What is your favorite memory? Why is it your favorite?
You may discuss the importance of memory to a story here.
Time: 60 Minutes
Passage: When people speak, they often speak in metaphors. A “roaring campfire,” for example, or a “beating heart.” These types of phrases don’t mean anything literally; they are used as a sort of shorthand to help us understand things that are difficult to visualize.
People also use metaphors to describe their feelings. “I’m feeling down today,” for example, or “I’m feeling feverish.”
What are some metaphors you can think of?
You may discuss the importance of metaphors to a story here.
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Osteosarcopenic obesity: the role of bone, muscle, and fat on health by MJ Ormsbee, CM Prado, JZ Ilich, S Purcell… – Journal of cachexia …, 2014 – Springer
The bone–fat interface: basic and clinical implications of marrow adiposity by MJ Devlin, CJ Rosen – The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2015 – Elsevier
Reduced size-independent mechanical properties of cortical bone in high-fat diet-induced obesity by SS Ionova-Martin, SH Do, HD Barth, M Szadkowska… – Bone, 2010 – Elsevier
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Long-term, high-fat-sucrose diet alters rat femoral neck and vertebral morphology, bone mineral content, and mechanical properties by RF Zernicke, GJ Salem, RJ Barnard, E Schramm – Bone, 1995 – Elsevier
The fat controller: adipocyte development by JM Stephens – PLoS Biol, 2012 – journals.plos.org