Non-stick, Cast Iron, or Stainless Steel: Which Is Best

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Non-stick cookware is very popular nowadays. It helps to prevent food from sticking to the pan. However, it does not necessarily mean that non-stick cookware will protect your food from bacteria growth. Some types of bacteria are resistant to certain chemicals used in non-stick cooking surfaces such as PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) and Teflon (Teflon).

In addition, some types of bacteria are resistant to heat. For example, Staphylococcus aureus (STA), which causes staph infections such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus) is resistant to temperatures above 130°F (54°C). STA is found in the nose and throat area of humans and animals. It can survive at these high temperatures for long periods of time.

Other bacteria, such as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium), are resistant to heat as well. These bacteria can cause severe illness if they become airborne.

Some other types of bacteria may be resistant to both heat and chemicals but still grow on non-stick cookware. This is because some non-stick coatings wear away with use, even if proper care is taken. For example, the perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) used in some non-stick cookware have been found to cause cancer in lab animals. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lists both PFOS and PFOA as “contaminants of concern” because of their potential effects on the environment and human health. They are both linked to cancer, kidney and liver damage, and birth defects.

Besides these issues, there is ongoing debate about the safety of non-stick cookware in general. One problem with non-stick cookware is that small amounts of chemicals are released when the cookware is heated. Higher temperatures increase the rate of chemical release. Repeated heating and cooling can also cause these chemicals to break down into even more toxic substances. Some types of non-stick cookware give off more of these toxic chemicals than others.

Furthermore, when non-stick cookware becomes scratched or worn, food begins to stick to the pan and is in contact with the poisonous chemicals used in the non-stick coating. If you frequently replace your non-stick cookware, you will be exposed to a smaller amount of these toxins over time. Even so, there have been no long-term studies on the safety of these chemicals and many health officials advise only using pans for a short period of time.

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) states that if temperatures exceed 500 degrees Fahrenheit (260 Celsius), toxic fumes are given off and flammable such as PFOA or PFOS may produce a fireball, causing burns.

Furthermore, the CDC suggests that the fumes are ten times more potent than carbon monoxide. The chemical changes to a gas at 500 degrees and increases the risk of cancer, heart disease, and liver malfunction.

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There are other chemicals used in non-stick cookware which can be toxic if they are heated to higher temperatures. These include:

The CDC reports that perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) is a suspected of causing cancer and birth defects. If these types of non-stick chemicals come in contact with an open flame, they can cause the flame to spread rapidly across the pan’s surface.

Another problem with non-stick cookware is that studies have shown that some types of non-stick coatings can break down when heated to temperatures as low as medium heat. This may cause the coating to flake into your food. On high heat, the chemical compounds may break down and give your food a burnt flavor.

The flaking and the burnt flavor may be signs that you need to replace your pan. The best way to prevent this is by taking care of your cookware, cleaning it after every use, never leaving it sitting empty for long periods of time, and replacing the pan every year.

Some types of non-stick cookware are safe to use if you take good care of them.

By using lower temperatures on your cookware and replacing it often, you may decrease your risk of coming into contact with dangerous chemicals. Most health officials suggest using cotton pastry brushes or wood utensils instead of metal, since metal can cause scratches in the coating.

Furthermore, some coatings may be damaged by storing sharp objects such as knives in the pan’s drawer. If you have a scratched non-stick pan, the scratches are weakened areas in the pan’s surface where chemicals can get in. Never use metal utensils in a non-stick pan as they will scratch the surface. Use plastic or wood instead.

In addition, it is important to use low to medium heat when cooking with non-stick cookware. High heat can cause the chemicals to break down and give your food a burnt flavor. It can also emit dangerous fumes. Use a cutting board to avoid wear and tear.

Other types of coatings that are used in non-stick cookware include ceramic, enamel, and diamond-reinforced coatings.

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Ceramic coatings give your cookware a glossy finish and they are naturally white in color. These coatings do not contain any metals. They are similar to enamel coatings, but they are less brittle and more resistant to heat.

Enamel coatings are very hard and smooth. If you are using a non-stick wok, do not use it over high heat.

Never preheat an empty non-stick pan and make sure to turn down the heat if the pan starts to smoke. They are also naturally white in color. Enamel is very resistant to heat, but it can sometimes crack easily.

Diamond-reinforced coatings are the hardest and most durable non-stick cookware, but they can be the most expensive. They are white in color. This will ensure that the enamel does not crack or break.

Diamond-reinforced coatings are some of the most durable. They can withstand scratches from metal utensils and are less likely to break if you drop the pan. They can withstand very high heats, but they can sometimes discolor and get scratched.

Take care of your cookware and chances are you won’t have to use your manufacturer’s warranty. Adhering to the care instructions is the best way to get the most use out of your cookware.

Most manufacturers will honor their warranties as long as you have kept the pan out of the oven and have not subjected it to any abuse. Make sure that if you do need to replace a pan, that you replace it with another pan from the same manufacturer.

Always remember to use medium heat when cooking with your non-stick cookware. If it starts to smell or give off a burnt odor, stop using it and wash it immediately.

Types of Cookware

Here are some of the most common types of cookware.

Aluminum Cookware

Aluminum is one of the most common metals used in cookware. It is durable, cheap, and a excellent conductor of heat. It heats evenly without hot spots. This will ensure that the new pan is compatible with your other cookware. It also heats up quickly.

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The downsides to this material are that it is reactive to acidic foods, and the aluminum can leach into your food. This causes a very slight health risk, with the biggest risk being to infants and small children due to their lower body mass.

Cast Iron Cookware

Cast iron cookware can resemble enameled or unglazed ceramic cookware. Most of the time, the handles on your cookware will be made of another material such as stainless steel or hard plastic.

The downsides are that aluminum is soft and can be dented or scratched easily. It can also react negatively with certain ingredients such as an acidic foods like tomatoes. Aluminum cookware is usually coated with the non-stick material to prevent these reactions from occurring. It is also available in a variety of colors such as blue, red, pink or purple. It can be very heavy.

This is the type of cookware that has been used for hundreds of years. It is extremely durable and can last for generations if you treat it properly.

You should never put cast iron in the oven or over high heat. It should only be used on a stovetop on low to medium heat. Cast iron should not be cleaned with soap, but rather hot water and a stiff brush.

Stainless Steel Cookware

Stainless steel cookware is durable and inert. It does not react with any ingredients. Stainless steel is also a poor conductor of heat, so it requires more energy to heat the pan up. It will not provide even heating like other metals.

It is highly recommended that you do not use metal utensils on your stainless steel cookware. Use plastic, wood or silicone instead. It should then be dried immediately and oiled to prevent rusting. This keeps the cast iron surface in good working condition for many years.

Stainless steel cookware is easy to clean and can give the appearance of quality cookware, even if it isn’t. It is quite heavy, but heats evenly. If you drop it on a tile floor or another hard surface, it can often dent or even break, so it should be handled with care.

It is very easy to keep clean. The only downside is that it can be prone to scratches. It is not recommended that you use any sort of bleach on your stainless steel cookware.

Ceramic Cookware

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Ceramic cookware usually comes in the form of glazed clay pots. They have been used for centuries. These pots are porous and can absorb the flavors of whatever you are cooking. While they can be used for cooking, they are not recommended as they can leach unsafe chemicals. They can also react with certain foods.

This type of cookware is great for storing dry goods in your kitchen such as flour or sugar.

Hard Anodized Cookware

This cookware is harder than stainless steel and will not bend as easily. It does not react to foods like aluminum and copper do. It is very easy to clean and care for.

Insulated Cookware

Insulated cookware can be made of a variety of materials from steel to plastic. Insulated cookware is usually used in combination with other materials. They are used for storing foods or liquids that need to be kept hot or cold.

Materials Used For Cookware Handles

The material that is used for the handle on your cookware should be comfortable and easy to grip when your hands are wet. Knobs and other handles are often made with plastic, silicone, or stainless steel. These materials are easy to clean and durable. Other cookware handles may be made of wood or bamboo. While these materials are attractive, they can be difficult to clean and may harbor bacteria if not cleaned properly.

Wood and bamboo handles can also crack or break if they are not treated properly.

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PTFE Coatings

PTFE is a coating that can be put on cookware in order to prevent food from sticking. It is important to make sure that you are buying cookware that is PFOA-free. This is a harmful chemical that has been found to have harmful health effects. Always check to make sure the coating used is safe.

There are many different materials from which cookware can be made. Each has its own benefits and drawbacks. By knowing how you plan to use your cookware, you can make a more educated choice on which material will best suit your needs.

Aluminum Cookware

Aluminum is a very soft metal and is not suitable for most types of cookware. It does not provide even heating, so it is only used in specialized baking pans like muffin tins. It is inexpensive and light weight, but it is also easily scratched. It can also react with acidic foods and some foods have a strange taste when cooked in aluminum cookware.

Copper Cookware

Copper cookware is soft and can easily be dented or scratched. While it is soft, it is an ideal metal for cookware as it is a great conductor of heat. It heats evenly and quickly. It is also one of the more expensive metals in which you can find cookware. It is usually lined with another metal so that it is more durable and less prone to scratching and denting.

Since it is a soft metal, it should only be used with plastic, wood, or nylon utensils to prevent scratches and dents.

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Stainless Steel Cookware

Stainless steel is a good conductor of heat and is a popular choice for cookware. It is a very durable material that can last for years if taken care of properly. It is, however, a bit heavier than other metals. Scratching can be an issue with this material. You can get varieties that are not coated, have an enamel coating, or have a copper core with a stainless steel exterior.

The type of coating and the price you pay will affect how well it holds up.

Cast Iron Cookware

Cast iron is very popular for cooking. It is a great conductor of heat and can go from the stove top to the oven with no problem. It is fairly inexpensive and can be found in many different price ranges. Cast iron can also be used on gas, electric, charcoal, or open fire cooking. This is one of the best options if you are looking to buy new cookware.

The down side is that it can be very heavy. You will most likely need assistance when lifting a full pot or pan.

Non-stick coatings are created with the use of PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene.) This is a very useful and harmful substance. It is useful in that it makes cookware non-stick, but harmful because PFOA (Perfluorooctanoic acid) is released when the PTFE coating begins to wear down. This harmful substance has been found to cause cancer in laboratory animals, so it is best to only use PTFE-coated cookware as needed and to be cautious when cooking with it.

The more you use your cookware, the more the PFOA is released. Constant use of non-stick pans results in high amounts of PFOA in the body. If you absolutely must use non-stick cookware, buy the cheapest possible pan and replace it regularly. Do not let food soak in pans and do not use boiling water to wash the pans.

Green Alternatives To Non-stick Coatings

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There are many safe alternatives to PFOA that manufacturers are using today. These are typically ceramic coatings or made of stainless steel and are not as easy to find. You can also restore non-stick coatings by using olive oil, meat drippings, or other oils. Do not use butter as it will burn at lower temperatures.

Stainless steel is popular because it does not have the harmful effects of PFOA. The only down side is that it is not a great conductor and takes longer to heat foods. It is also not a good material for cooking eggs, as they have a tendency to stick to the surface.

Cast iron is a highly-priced material, but it is worth the investment if you cook regularly. It will last for years and can be used on various types of stove tops. It is not ideal for microwave use and takes some skill to cook with.

Enameled cast iron is a great option if you want the ease of cleaning that comes with non-stick cookware, but with the benefits of cast iron. The only downside is that the enamel can chip if the pan is dropped. This type of cookware is also easily cleaned and will last for years if taken care of properly.

Aluminum is another great conductor and is a fairly affordable option. It is a lightweight material that heats quickly and evenly. This type of cookware is not suitable for use on an induction stove top, but works well on gas and electric cook tops.

If you decide to buy aluminum cookware, there are different grades available. You can buy the lower grade for around $50 or the high grade for much more. The price difference is due to the thickness of the material. Thicker aluminum will distribute heat more evenly and is less likely to warp.

There are two downsides to using aluminum cookware. The first is that the material can react with acidic foods, changing their flavor. For example, when acidic foods come in contact with aluminum, it will alter the food’s color and taste. This problem can be prevented by using additives or by substituting an alternate material for part of the cookware, such as stainless steel.

The second problem with aluminum is that it can cause the food to over-cook on the inside even though the food’s surface is not yet done. This can be prevented by using dividers between the food or by not allowing the food to sit in the pan for too long.

The Facts About Non-Stick Cookware

Is non-stick harmful? If so, how harmful?

The answer to this question is a little more complicated. If you’re looking for reasons not to use non-stick cookware, there are many. There are also many reasons to continue using it.

The Consensus: Safest Option Is Cast Iron

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If you were to ask the majority of chefs what they would recommend, most of them would say cast iron. This is because it heats evenly and can stand the test of time. There are cons to this material as well. It is much heavier than other materials, which makes it harder to cook with. Cleaning it can also be a hassle.

If you have the energy and patience for cast iron, then it may be the best option.

The Facts About PFOA and Cancer

Teflon is a brand name created by DuPont that is most commonly recognized as a non-stick coating. It was created in the 40’s and has become a staple in kitchens around the world. It is used on pots, pans, bakeware, cake molds, and more.

During the manufacturing process, two harmful gases are released: tetrafluoroethane and hexafluoropropene. These two chemicals are known carcinogens. Additionally, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is created during the process as well.

The Facts About Aluminum

Aluminum cookware has been around for quite some time. It became popular during World War II as a cheaper alternative to copper and cast iron cookware. It became less common when new anti-corrosive treatments for steel became available.

Aluminum is a soft, lightweight metal that is cheap to produce. It heats quickly and evenly and is often used in the manufacturing of airplanes, if not for the exterior, then definitely for the interior.

Sources & references used in this article:

Non-stick ceramic coating composition and process by BY Jeon, SM Kim – US Patent 7,879,449, 2011 – Google Patents

Sol-gel coating for steel and cast iron substrates and methods of making and using same by H Dandekar, J Jacob, S Pew – US Patent App. 12/615,487, 2011 – Google Patents

Heavy duty griddle top by WL Ramer – US Patent 3,245,462, 1966 – Google Patents

Sol-gel coating for steel and cast iron substrates and methods of making and using same by J Jacob, S Pew, H Dandekar – US Patent App. 13/508,804, 2012 – Google Patents

Evaluating non-stick properties of different surface materials for contact frying by S Ashokkumar, J Adler-Nissen – Journal of food engineering, 2011 – Elsevier

Non-stick cooking utensil by L Ren, X Qiu, Q Liu, G Zhang, Z Cui, H Yang… – US Patent …, 2012 – Google Patents

The Non-stick Cookware Revolution by V Goldschmidt –