How To Choose A Running Shoe?
Running shoes are made up of two parts: upper and outsole. Upper part includes the upper material (usually leather), which provides support to your feet while you run. Outsole is the bottom portion of your foot, which provides traction when you walk or run. There are different types of footwear that provide different levels of comfort and performance.
The most common type of running shoes are those with a sole made from rubber, such as Nike Air Pegasus or Adidas Adizero Boost. These shoes have a flexible sole that allows them to conform to your foot’s shape better than other types of running shoes.
However, they do not offer the same level of cushioning as some other types of running shoes.
Other types of running shoes include those with a rigid sole (such as Brooks Adrenaline) and those with a non-stiff sole (such as Saucony Free Fly). Stiff soled shoes have a stiff outer layer that gives them added stability over softer soled shoes.
Non-stiff soled shoes are designed to allow your feet to move freely without restricting their movement.
You can also find running shoes that have a stretchy material made from either nylon or Lycra on the sides. This material allows the shoe to stretch when your foot swells during exercise.
Other types of running shoes include those with a wedge (such as Asics Hyper), those with a higher arch (such as New Balance 1260v4) and those for under-pronators (such as Brooks Adrenaline GTS).
The design of a running shoe can have a significant impact on your running style. If you get running shoes that do not match your running style, you may develop problems with your feet, ankles, legs and even your back.
You should try to get the correct type of running shoe to prevent any long-term problems.
Types Of Running Shoes
Different types of running shoes are designed for different foot shapes and running styles. For example, runners with low arches are best suited to motion-controlled shoes, while those with high arches are more suited to neutral shoes.
Some runners may need extra cushioning, which are ideal for long distance running. Others don’t, and prefer to run in lightweight shoes. It is important to choose the right shoe for you.
Motion-controlled shoes have extra stability in the midsole and cushioning in the heel, allowing the shoe to control your foot motion. Motion-controlled shoes are generally recommended for runners with overpronation.
Pronation refers to the way your foot rolls from heel to toe, and overpronators have a tendency to roll their feet so much that they turn outwards. These types of shoes are designed for you to roll your ankles less when running.
Neutral running shoes don’t control or limit the way your feet roll when you run. They offer a lot of flexibility, making them ideal for runners who have normal arches.
These types of running shoes are suitable for most runners, but they aren’t as good at dealing with overpronation.
Cushioning shoes are designed to offer a lot of shock absorption, which is good if you tend to push off hard when you run. Cushioning shoes can also help prevent injuries such as muscle fatigue, shin splints and ankle sprains.
Lightweight shoes are great for racing and performing speedwork. They offer less cushioning than stability shoes, but they’re a lot lighter, which allows you to be faster.
The drawback of lightweight performance running shoes is that they aren’t as good at dealing with the impacts from running, so aren’t as good at preventing fatigue, runner’s toe and other injuries.
Barefoot running shoes are a relatively new style of running shoe. They look like a regular running shoe, but they have no cushioning or support of any kind.
This allows your feet to land on the ground without any interference and “strike” the ground with each step. Barefoot running shoes are designed to mimic the way humans were meant to run, which is said to prevent injuries. They can help prevent common running injuries such as shin splints and runner’s knee.
Cross training shoes are designed for non-running activities such as basketball, football, and other sports. They are lightweight, flexible and provide good cushioning.
This allows them to mold to the shape of your foot when you run and help prevent injuries such as shin splints and ankle sprains.
Skeleton shoes are the lightest type of running shoe available. They are so light that you can even run with them in the sand or snow.
Skeleton shoes provide little to no cushioning and very little support. They should only be used for running on a hard, even surface such as concrete or asphalt.
Common Running Injuries
There are a huge range of running injuries, some of which you may not initially associate with the activity. The most common running injury is aching legs, which is usually just a sign that you’re out of shape and your body isn’t used to the exercise.
It can also be a result of overstriding, where you land with your legs too far ahead of you. Strains and pulls are common injuries in runners, and there are many different types including Achilles tendinitis, hamstring strains, iliotibial band syndrome and shin splints. Bone fractures are rare, but most common in the long bones in the legs, arms and feet. Runner’s knee is one of the more commonly diagnosed knee problems in runners. This is when the cartilage inside the knee wears down, causing pain and swelling.
Runners can also suffer more life-threatening injuries that aren’t directly related to running, but occur as a result of it. Overexertion is a common problem in runners who push themselves too hard.
This can cause a heart attack, heat stroke and dehydration. These are often more likely to occur in hot weather or in long distance runners who train for marathons and other long distance races.
The most common running-related death is a sudden cardiac arrest. This can strike even the healthiest athlete, but risk factors can increase the chances of suffering it while running.
These include being overweight or obese, having high blood pressure or high cholesterol, a history of heart disease in your family and a lack of physical fitness. If you begin to feel pain in your chest or experience nausea, dizziness or break into a rash while running, stop immediately and rest. If you don’t feel better within a few minutes, call emergency services.
This is a selection of some of the most common running injuries, but for a full list of potential problems and how to prevent them, visit the American Academy of PAs and the American Orthopedic Foot & Ankle Society.
The evolution of the human foot is very interesting. Many centuries ago, our early ancestors spent most of their time in trees.
They would travel from the trees, walk around and then climb back up. Having feet perfectly designed for both climbing and walking would have allowed them to do this easily, so the shape of the foot was very important for balance. Over time the human race began walking more and more and climbing less and less, until eventually our feet became designed for walking perfectly. This explains why we have a large big toe, so we can stand and balance on it, while the rest of toes are smaller so they can fit inside our shoes. If we went back to climbing trees all the time, our feet would be very different.
Shoes were first created in the Stone Age, when humans made soles of animal skin to place inside their feet. Hunters wore special shoes with soft soles so that they could walk without making noise to get close to prey.
The invention of the loom led to textiles becoming popular, and by 1500BCE the first sandals were made from papyrus and palm leaves. Mass production didn’t begin until the 19th century, with the primary materials still being leather or wood.
The first jogging craze took place in 1963 when a Californian cardiologist named Kenneth H. Cooper published a book called “Aerobics”.
It included a method of building fitness that came to be known as “jogging”, which involved running at a moderate pace for a long period of time. While the idea was initially mocked, it soon caught on and spread across the US. It reached Europe soon after and, by the 1970’s, jogging had become a worldwide phenomenon.
In the 1980’s, running received another boost through the creation of a new philosophy called “Natural Running”. This suggested that people’ bodies were designed to run without added padding or support, so it was better to learn how to land lightly rather than add extra cushioning.
It was pioneered by a Norwegian athlete named Trym Anteney and received mixed reviews. While some people claimed it reduced the risk of injury, others believed that added padding and support were vital to prevent pain.
There are a number of types of running related injuries that can occur, including bone fractures, muscle tears and inflammation, ligament tears, tendon inflammation, spinal problems, and finally various illnesses that can be given to you by spending long periods of time in cold weather without the proper clothing.
Shoes are created to prevent injury and provide the best cushioning system. However, different types of running shoes exist which are designed with a specific purpose.
These include cushioning, stability, motion control, flexibility and lightweight. Each type is designed for different purposes and will suit different types of runner.
Cushioning is the main purpose of most running shoes. It is used to provide shock absorption during exercise and running.
This one is mostly for runners with normal arches who don’t over or under-pronate.
Stability shoes are designed to limit the amount of over-pronation that the user does when they run. They do this by using a system of “posts” which are located inside the shoe, under the foot.
These provide extra support when the foot bends, preventing it from twisting inwards.
Motion-controlled shoes are designed to limit the supination of the foot. They do this by using a system of wedges and posts.
The wedges are located at the heel and control the user’s motion, while the posts are located under the arch and control over-pronation. This combination of wedges and posts is designed to give the best of both worlds. It reduces over-pronation while also giving support to damaged arches.
Flexibility shoes are specifically designed for people who have extremely flexible feet and tend to over-pronate. These are used mainly by professional athletes or other people who need a lot of flexibility in their feet when running, such as runners with traumatic fractures or ligament tears.
They provide the most support of any other type of shoe but are also the bulkiest. They allow for the foot to bend in all directions and prevent the foot from over-pronating.
Lightweight shoes are specifically designed for people who need a very flexible shoe while maintaining some level of support. They are mostly used by mid- to long-distance runners with low arches or normal arches, as they do not provide much support.
They also weigh a lot less than other types of shoe, hence the name. They prevent the foot from over-pronating but not to a large degree.
Running is one of the few sports in which you can take part without spending a single penny. All you really need is a good pair of trainers and plenty of determination.
But, for those who want to take it to the next level, some money may be needed. For example, if you are a serious competitor in the sport and need top-notch equipment, this will come at a price. However, it is also possible to cut costs by doing some of the equipment yourself. For example, you could build your own hurdles (for sprinting) or even your own personal computerized timer.
There are few major companies who produce running shoes such as Asics, Puma, and Adidas. Each brand has many different types of shoe catering for different foot types and different types of running such as treadmills or outdoors.
For those who run on a regular basis, a wax that comes from the skin of certain fruits has been proven to reduce blisters. It is called Bag Balm and can be used for both short- or long-distance running.
For the first time in the history of the Games, a marathon for female competitors was introduced. The Greek Olympic Committee explained that this would “provide additional inspiration for our brothers in the states to send their women to the Games”.
Some other sports, such as wrestling and weightlifting, were also played by men only. There was one exception in the sport of rowing, in which there was no difference between the sexes.
The prize for the winner of the marathon was quite large. The city of Athens, the hosts of the Olympics, offered a silver cup to the winner of the men’s competition and a lesser cup, but still of silver, to the winner of the women’s competition.
The marathon distance was fixed at 42.195 kilometres so that the length of a marathon would be equal to the longest distance a Greek runner would have to run in order to report to war.
The race started in the grounds of the Temple of Zeus, roughly where the starting line of the modern marathon is located. The course wound through the streets of Athens and headed towards the coastal town of Marathon. This course, which also can be run today, was marked by stone pillars that gave each kilometre distance. The race then turned around and headed back to the Temple of Zeus.
The male runners wore no special clothing except for a chiton, the garment worn by nearly all men at this time. The only other item of clothing that was sometimes worn was a fig leaf or nothing at all.
The female competitors, on the other hand, had to compete in full length drapery. This drapery was not light and airy, but instead was made of heavy fabric and weighed down the wearer. The fabric was usually a light colour so as to make the sweat of the runner visible. This drapery was designed with both practical and sexist motives; it kept the female competitors from falling over and exposing themselves, but also served to make the running difficult by weighing the women down.
The first race began at 3:00pm. The course consisted of a single circuit around the city and the race was run only once.
The race began with ten runners, all from Greece or its colonies. At least one runner was a former champion and another would become a champion in an upcoming Olympics.
The majority of the runners were untested.
In total there were around 40,000 spectators watching the race. Most were local Greeks, interested by the hype of the Olympics or curious to see the spectacle that their neighbours had been raving about.
Also in the crowd were visitors from many foreign nations. The competitors were most likely aware of the legend of how the course for the first Olympic Games in 776 BC was lined with men from Peloponnesus who would kill anyone who didn’t run fast enough. The organizers of the race hoped that the prestige of the Olympics and goodwill towards visitors would prevent anyone being killed this time.
The race started on a hill and the initial pace was slow. Despite starting slowly, Plutarch reports that after leaving the Temple of Zeus there was a great struggle between the six leading runners, with even the Champion of All Greece, Diogenes of Sparta, struggling to stay in the lead group.
The runners made their way out of the city and up a hill before moving onto the flat land towards the shoreline. On this relatively level section the competitors starting drifting to the front and rear of the small lead group.
Two in particular began to break away from the rest and contest the finish between themselves. On the shoreline itself a large crowd had gathered to watch the race, filling boats and some even swimming in the sea itself.
The struggle for the front two positions was so fierce that at one point the first runner, a Spartan called Polycrates, tripped on his long chiton and tumbled to the ground. Despite repairing his clothing and resuming the race he would eventually fall further behind and finish in last place.
At this stage there were only two runners left contending for victory, Sotiria of Crete and Himilce of Carthage.
The closing stages of the race were intense, with one runner gaining a small advantage and then the other staging a fightback. By the time they passed the judges’ table, which was located nearly two-thirds of the way along the course, there was less than seven metres between them.
At this point Himilce, who was in front, attempted to remove her peplos (a garment similar to a chiton but longer), presumably to make it easier to run. The referee called for the umpire, Hellanicus of Lesbos, who was in charge of the judges’ table.
He allowed her to take off the garment but as she slowed down to do so Sotiria took the opportunity to pass her rival.
Sotiria’s lead lasted all the way to the finish and she became the first winner of the stadion race. Himilce was given second place and, despite falling, Polycrates was announced as the winner of the hoplitodromos.
In keeping with the legend of how the first Olympic Games were founded, Sotiria was awarded an olive wreath and a portion of cooked meat from the Olympic winner’s sacrifices to Zeus. It is probable that she was paraded through the streets of Elis in a horse-drawn chariot before being presented with her prizes.
The race quickly became the highlight of the festival and was repeated again four years later, with the exact same result. After this, however, there is no record of it ever being held again.
This may be because the Olympic Games suffered a decline in both popularity and quality after the playing of the Pythian Games in 396 BC.
At this festival, another foot race was held which had been introduced to the Olympics in 720 BC. This was the “diaulos” (literally meaning “double pipe”), so named because the runners made a pair of marks on the ground, about ten metres apart, and ran back and forth between them.
It is unknown when this race was discontinued, but it is likely that it occurred sometime around 396 BC, the same year as the stadion.
The diaulos was over five times the length of the stadion and as such it allowed much greater scope for competitors to differentiate themselves from one another. The race became even more important than the stadion during the years that the Pythian Games were eclipsing the Olympics.
It continued to be held even after the stadion was discontinued.
The diaulos’ prominence at the Olympics led to a change in the rules of the race. Originally, runners were awarded points, with the person with the most points winning.
This was almost certainly because there could be more than one winner, such as in the case of there being a tie between multiple competitors.
By the fifth century, however, it seems that the race was only allowed to have one winner and so the rules were changed to the format which is still used today: finishing time determines who wins.
The diaulos was eventually discontinued in 394 BC when the games were suspended entirely for nearly five decades due to the influence of the Spartans on Greek politics.
The stadion races are short in relation to other running events; the longest, fastest and most important of these is the dolichos (long-stadion). The dolichos consists of running the length of the stadium, turning around and returning, a distance of about 3.2 miles (5.2 kilometres), for a total approximate distance of 7.4 miles (12 kilometres).
The race was only held every four years and only during a special at the Olympics. The winner wears a palm branch and is then known as a “palintonist”.
In the ancient world, this type of race was the most sought after not just in sporting terms, but in cultural and social terms too.
The last events to be added were the horse races which were introduced during 148 BC. These grew in importance during the Roman era and remain popular to this day.
At the first Olympics, there were no events held over a distance longer than 200 metres. There was, however, one event which combined strength and endurance: the pentathlon.
The pentathlon consisted of five different events, all completed on the same day.
The events were as follows:
It is not known when the pentathlon was created or by whom.
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All you need to know about the music business by DS Passman – 2011 – books.google.com
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The truth about leadership: The no-fads, heart-of-the-matter facts you need to know by JM Kouzes, BZ Posner – 2010 – books.google.com
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