The ABCs of Vitamins: Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine):
In the human body thiamine acts as a coenzyme for many enzymes. Thiamine deficiency causes mental retardation and death. It is essential for proper growth and development of the brain, nervous system, heart and blood vessels.
The body cannot produce enough thiamine itself; it must come from food or supplements. Food sources include meat, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products. Foods containing thiamine are often fortified with the nutrient. Most infant formulas contain thiamine.
Food Sources: Meat, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products
Supplements: Riboflavin (vitamin riboflavin), niacinamide (vitamin B3) and pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B5) are available over the counter as dietary supplements.
Recommended Daily Intake (Daily Value): Adults get 300 micrograms per day of riboflavin. Children age 6 months through 12 years receive 150 micrograms per day. Women of childbearing potential need to take 400 micrograms daily.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin):
Like thiamine, riboflavin works as an enzyme coenzyme in the human body. Deficiency can cause a skin condition called cheilosis, which appears as cracking at the corners of the mouth. Other symptoms of riboflavin deficiency include sore or red and swollen eyes, dizziness and swelling in the arms and legs.
People with a riboflavin deficiency may also be stunted.
Food Sources: Meat, milk, eggs, leafy vegetables and whole grain products.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin or Niaspan):
Niacin works with the amino acid tryptophan to produce neurotransmitters in the brain that affect your mood. Deficiency can cause depression, mental confusion and dermatitis. Niacin is also involved in the breakdown of fats and sugars in the body and helps in the maintenance of healthy skin.
Food Sources: Meat, fish, poultry, peanuts, eggs, wholemeal bread and cereals.
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid):
Pantothenic acid is essential for the breakdown of fat and carbohydrates within cells. It is also vital for the production of hormones such as adrenaline and some vitamins. Deficiency can cause fatigue, headaches, digestive problems, mental confusion and acne.
Food Sources: Meat, fish, poultry, whole grains and brewer’s yeast.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine):
A member of the B-complex group of vitamins, pyridoxine is involved in the metabolism of proteins and helps the nervous system to function normally. Deficiency can lead to depression, dermatitis and an increased sensitivity to sunlight.
Sources & references used in this article:
Multidrug transporter ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein secretes riboflavin (vitamin B2) into milk by AE van Herwaarden, E Wagenaar… – … and cellular biology, 2007 – Am Soc Microbiol
Physiological and pharmacological roles of ABCG2 (BCRP): recent findings in Abcg2 knockout mice by MLH Vlaming, JS Lagas, AH Schinkel – Advanced drug delivery reviews, 2009 – Elsevier
Evidence for an ABC-type riboflavin transporter system in pathogenic spirochetes by RK Deka, CA Brautigam, BA Biddy, WZ Liu… – MBio, 2013 – Am Soc Microbiol
A novel class of modular transporters for vitamins in prokaryotes by DA Rodionov, P Hebbeln, A Eudes… – Journal of …, 2009 – Am Soc Microbiol
The riboflavin transporter RibU in Lactococcus lactis: molecular characterization of gene expression and the transport mechanism by CM Burgess, DJ Slotboom, ER Geertsma… – Journal of …, 2006 – Am Soc Microbiol
ABC of nutrition. Vitamins I. by AS Truswell – British medical journal (Clinical research ed.), 1985 – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
A genome-wide transcription analysis of a fungal riboflavin overproducer by M Karos, C Vilariño, C Bollschweiler… – Journal of biotechnology, 2004 – Elsevier
Diversity of membrane transport proteins for vitamins in bacteria and archaea by M Jaehme, DJ Slotboom – Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General …, 2015 – Elsevier
Polarograpbic determination of riboflavin (vitamin B2) and other vitamin B factors. by JJ Lingane, OL Davis – Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1941 – cabdirect.org