The Big Bang Theory Explained – Science Simplified
In order to understand the big bang theory, it is necessary to know some basic facts about our universe. There are two types of matter in our universe: matter and antimatter.
Matter consists of protons (protons being the positively charged particles) and neutrons (neutrons being negatively charged particles). Antimatter consists of antiprotons and antineptons.
Antimatter is not found naturally in nature. It must be created from normal matter through nuclear fusion.
When ordinary matter and antimatter meet, they annihilate each other completely releasing energy. However, when antimatter meets with regular matter, the annihilation does not occur because there is no anti-matter present to make up the difference between the two types of particles. Therefore, antimatter cannot exist outside our universe!
When ordinary matter and antimatter collide, they release tremendous amounts of energy. This is called the “Big Bang”.
The explosion releases huge quantities of energy which causes everything in the universe to expand rapidly. A new universe is born out of nothingness!
What Is Antimatter?
Antimatter is a form of matter that contains one proton and zero neutrons. An atom made entirely of antimatter would have no nucleus containing any protons or neutrons whatsoever. The only thing that would be in the nucleus is an antiproton.
Antiprotons are found all throughout the universe. They are created in the center of stars by a process called “alpha decay”.
Alpha decay occurs when a large, unstable atom called “helium” undergoes nuclear fusion. The helium atom splits into two smaller atoms of hydrogen. Each atom of hydrogen consists of one proton and one electron. In total, four protons and four electrons are released. The energy released by the two atoms of hydrogen is not enough to counteract the close force of gravity experienced by both protons. The two protons are forced together by the close force of gravity until a much larger atom of helium results. This process is known as “alpha decay”.
The Big Bang Theory Claims
The big bang theory claims that the universe is expanding and that everything began from one single point. A sudden explosion of energy known as “the big bang” sent a shock wave through the center of the universe.
The big bang created matter, time and space.
The universe started out as a single, infinitely small point containing an incredibly large amount of energy. As the universe expanded, matter began to form.
Atoms were created when the universe was just one second old. Galaxies, stars and planets formed much later.
The first stars to form were made entirely of hydrogen and helium gas. These first stars were called “population III” stars.
The heavy elements such as carbon, oxygen, iron, gold, silver and even the hydrogen in our own bodies did not exist until the universe was much older. These heavy elements were cooked up inside the cores of later-generation stars through the process of nuclear fusion. When these stars exploded as supernovas, they sprinkled new elements across the universe where they were incorporated into the fabric of new stars and their orbiting planets. Our own solar system is considered to be “population I”, because it has a lot of heavy elements compared to older stars.
How Do You Create Antimatter?
The only place in nature that we know of that creates positive and negative particles simultaneously are in the centers of galaxies such as our own Milky Way galaxy. In the Milky Way, there is a huge black hole that contains the mass of four and a half million suns! As matter is pulled into the black hole, the gravitational field becomes so strong that it causes space and time to bend around itself. As a result, particles of matter and antimatter are created simultaneously and released into the universe.
A single proton can be converted into an antiproton if it travels through a magnetic field with the perfect strength.
Antimatter is not found naturally on Earth, but it is used for medical purposes such as PET scans. Positive particles are injected into the human body and travel to the part of the body that needs to be analyzed.
There, they collide with electrons producing gamma rays that can be read by a camera. The energy of the gamma rays let doctors see whether a person has cancer or other problems in the areas where the antimatter collided with regular matter.
How Do You Make a Black Hole?
A black hole is an object whose gravity is so strong that it sucks in everything, even light. The boundary between a black hole and the rest of the universe is known as the event horizon. Nothing can escape from inside the event horizon, not even light. Anything that falls past the event horizon will be pulled into the black hole and crushed into infinite density within a mathematical point known as a singularity.
Sources & references used in this article:
Fragmentation by molecular dynamics: The microscopic ”big bang” by BL Holian, DE Grady – Physical review letters, 1988 – APS
Toward correction-free 8Li (α, n) 11B data at the Gamow energy of explosive nucleosynthesis by M La Cognata, A Del Zoppo, R Alba… – Journal of Physics G …, 2010 – iopscience.iop.org
The Nuclear Network Generator: A tool for nuclear astrophysics by A Jorissen, S Goriely – Nuclear Physics A, 2001 – academia.edu
Design thinking by MAM Gobble – Research-Technology Management, 2014 – Taylor & Francis
” ghosts” and the big bang theory by VM Koryukin, AV Koryukin – Journal of Physics: Conference …, 2018 – iopscience.iop.org
Universe, Life, Consciousness by A Linde – Paper delivered at the Physics and Cosmology …, 1998 – andrewsilverman.co.uk